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Kenya leads African governments in the protection of children. The key components determining the Governments performance on protection of children include the ratification of international and regional legal instruments, laws that protect children against harm and exploitation and a juvenile justice system, national plan of action and coordinating organisation on children’s rights.
Child protection ranking puts Kenya on top, showing that it has performed well in laying legal and policy foundations tor the protection of children. laws protect children against harmful traditional practices, trafficking and sexual exploitation. lt is one of the countries where corporal punishment is prohibited in schools and penal systems.
A juvenile justice system has been established to deal with children’s cases. A Government agency coordinates national efforts and follows the implementation of children’s rights. In 2003, the Government introduced free primaiy education, which has resulted in high enrolment rates.
The minimum age for marriage and employment in Kenya are consistent with internationally accepted standards for boys and girls. The Government and civil society analyse the situation of children and then write and present a report to a convention in Geneva.
Kenya has submitted two reports and domesticated the Convention on Children’s Rights through the Children’s Act. The country has also domesticated the African Charter on the Rights of the Child.
In the new Constitution, children have the right to a name and nationality, free and compulsory basic education, basic nutrition, shelter and health care. They also have a right to be protected from abuse,
neglect, harmful cultural practices, violence, inhuman treatment and punishment, and hazardous or exploitative labour.
The new law also gives them a right to parental care and protection, not to be detained, except as a measure of last resort, and when detained, to be held for the shortest appropriate period.
The Departinent of`Children’s Affairs is the lead Government agency that coordinates and supervises services and facilities designed to advance the wellbeing ofchildren and their families. lts mandate is drawn from the
Children’s Act, which provides for parental responsibility, fostering, adoption, custody, guardianship, care and protection of children. It also provides for the administration of children’s institutions, leadership, coordination, supervision and provision of seivices in promoting the rights and welfare of all children in Kenya.
There are two types of children’s institutions: Government ones such as remand homes and rehabilitation schools and charitable institutions run by NGOs. The department encourages rehabilitation and integration of child offenders, and protection of all children. It also runs the cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children.
The Family Care Services section deals with adoption, foster care, guardianship and children in orphanages. Adopted and foster children are protected against abuse or exploitation. However, the National Children’s Policy says adoption societies should avoid separating siblings.
The Institutional Care Services section deals with remand and rehabilitation, and works with district commissioners to place children under proper care. lt ensures that children in conflict with the law are
remanded, rehabilitated and re-integrated. Together with the National Council for Children’s Services, the section has defined guidelines for charitable institutions.
For instance, rehabilitation schools are required to ensure that children are settled in comfortable, supportive and educative environment, in order to constructive lives. Personnel at rehabilitation homes must respect and protect the human dignity of children under supervision, and treat them with affection.
The Department of Children’s Affairs and other partners have established a free child help line 116 – where Kenyans can report cases of child abuse or violence. This was first established with the Government and Childline Kenya.
Other partners such as the World Vision, UNICEF, International Overseas Migration (IOM), Plan International and telephone services providers Safaricom, Zain and Telkom later joined.
The Government provided land and staff while other partners took care of other logistics. Nairobi is the main line and the project has been rolled out in Mombasa, Eldoret and Garissa and other areas with child protection centres.
Life of Children in Kenya
The situation for the children of Kenya is of particular importance, because they make up an unusually large portion of the population.
Forty percent of Kenya’s population is aged under 14 years, while most Western or developed countries have less than 20% of their population in that age group.
The percentages are skewed somewhat by the low life expectancy in Kenya (due largely to the spread of HIV and AIDS), which leaves the country with a very small population of seniors. This also means many of Kenya’s children are orphans.
The Kenyan education system is similar to that in the USA, with 8 years at a primary level, 4 years of secondary education, and then the potential to continue with another 4 years of post-secondary schooling.
Though children can (and are meanwhile obliged) to attend primary school at no cost in Kenya, parents are expected to contribute towards the cost of running the school. This has led to a serious deterioration in the education infrastructure and teaching field, since many parents are too poor to pay.
Life can be difficult for children of Kenya due to poverty and unemployment. Families are often forced to take children out of school (even when fees are not the problem) because they are needed to earn money for the family.
With jobs scarce and low-paying, every member of the family must work, especially if the parents are unable to find work of their own. For families with their own farms, children may also be pulled from school because they are needed to help tend cattle or crops. With half of all rural Kenyans living in poverty, this is a constant struggle.
Children of Kenya who live in the cities aren’t always in a better situation compared to rural children. Abandoned or orphaned children are forced to live in the streets, and live a life of hunger, crime and sexual abuse.
As modern life changes the lifestyles of most Kenyans, those still living in rural areas often continue to follow the old ways of their tribe, particularly when it comes to coming-of-age rituals. The specific details of the rituals vary from tribe to tribe.
Critical Issues Affecting Children in Kenya
Laws and policies: In Kenya, national policies and legislation have been developed with key global priorities for children and women in mind. These include the Children Act that domesticates the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Free Primary Education that could enable the country to achieve the Millennium Development Goal on education. The key challenge for some of the laws and policies, however, is their interpretation and implementation.
Poverty: Despite the impressive economic growth in the last two years, Kenya is among the world’s 30 poorest countries, ranking 152 out of 177 countries on the 2006 Human Development Index. Inequalities are wide with the top 10 per cent of Kenyans earning 44 per cent of the national income, whilst the bottom 10 per cent earns less than one per cent. Kenya’s poorest regions, including North Eastern Province, have twice the relative poverty headcount of its least poor regions. Years of drought in this region have had a serious impact on the well-being of children, increasing malnutrition rates, morbidity and mortality.
Child survival: The 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health survey showed deterioration in almost all health indicators. Under five mortality rates (U5MR) had risen from from110 to 115 per 1,000 live births over the previous four to five years. The same survey exposed major disparities across the country — with U5MR ranging from 54 per 1,000 live births in Central Province to 163 per 1,000 in North Eastern Province and 206 per 1,000 in Nyanza Province. Separate surveys also show high under five mortality rates in the informal settlements of Nairobi, rising to 245 per 1,000 live births in Embakasi and 186 in Kibera informal settlements.
Malnutrition continues to threaten a significant proportion of Kenyan children and women. The most recent countrywide data from 2005/06 shows that 33 per cent of children are stunted, six per cent are wasted and 20 per cent are underweight. National immunization coverage is at 76 per cent, far below the recommended 85 per cent. Wide disparities in immunization rates exist. In the drought-prone North Eastern Province, for example, where access to health facilities is poor, measles vaccination coverage is only 37 per cent.
Access to safe water and sanitation facilities is also limited. More than 15 million people – including more than half the rural population – are without access to safe water or sanitation facilities.
While malaria continues to be the biggest killer of children in Kenya, there was a 44 per cent in under-five deaths from malaria in the malaria endemic areas. This was achieved through effective treatment following a change in the drug policy from SP to combination therapy, the distribution of over 12 million insecticide-treated bed nets, and the use of preventive malaria treatment during pregnancy. Between 2002 and 2006 the percentage of children under five sleeping under a treated net increased from just four to 52, while access to prompt and effective treatment rose from four per cent to 16 per cent.
HIV and AIDS: Life expectancy has reduced drastically from 63 in 1990 to 44 as a result of the impact of HIV and AIDs. However, prevalence rates have reduced significantly from 13.6 in 1997 to just under six per cent in 2006. The decline is attributed to several factors, including increased awareness and use of condoms, availability of anti-retroviral treatment and scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Approximately 1.3 million Kenyans are currently living with HIV, including about 156,000 children. Despite rapidly expanded access to treatment in recent years, an estimated 140,000 adults still die annually due to AIDS-related illnesses. Out of an estimated 2.4 million orphans and vulnerable children in need of care and support, about 1.2 million are believed to be due to rising AIDS mortality. Latest estimates of incidence put the number of new HIV infections in the country between 236 and 397 per day.
Education: Kenya introduced Free Primary Education in 2003, enabling many more children to enjoy their right to education. In 2008, the Government started meeting the tuition costs for secondary education. With a net enrolment rate of 86 per cent, Kenya is well on track to achieve the Millennium Declaration Goal of basic education for all children by 2015. However, 1.2 million children of school-going age are still not attending school in spite of the free education. And while gender parity has been virtually achieved at the national level, sharp regional disparities remain with about 80 per cent of girls in North Eastern Province not enrolled in school.
Child protection: Despite the existence of progressive laws to protect children, the level of violence against and abuse and exploitation of children is still high. An estimated 10,000 to 30,000 children have been caught up in commercial sex trade, mainly in the coastal towns.
Emergency: The humanitarian crisis in the country, following the displacement of more than 350,000 people in the post election violence has increased the vulnerability of affected children and their families. The violence has disrupted the children’s access to services such as health and education. Displaced children, especially those living in the camps for internally displaced people, are at risk of abuse and exploitation. The living conditions in the camps also expose the children, especially those under five years to malaria, cholera and other diseases.
UNICEF is working with the Government of Kenya and other development partners to leverage resources to ensure women and children have access to and utilize services that will advance their rights and to influence legal and policy reform.
Street Children in Kenya
The United Nations has defined the term ‘street children’ to include “any boy or girl… for whom the street in the widest sense of the word … has become his or her habitual abode and/or source of livelihood, and who is inadequately protected, supervised, or directed by responsible adults.”
Nairobi’s street children are easily recognised with their trademark sacks slung over their backs, searching through dustbins. They are branded “chokora” or scavengers.
In order to survive on the streets, young people often beg, carry luggage, or clean business premises and vehicles. Others earn some money by collecting waste paper, bottles, and metals for recycling.
The children sometimes assist the city council cleaners in sweeping and collecting garbage.
Below are some of the reasons why these children end up in the streets.
- Abandoned children. Some street children just found themselves in the streets.They were not given a chance to choose whether to live in the streets or not.You see,irresponsible parents go and dump innocent children in the streets knowing very well that they are hurting their future.The problem is the fact that such parents don’t care about their children simply because they don’t want to be responsible parents.
- Some children are born in the streets.Unlike other children who are born elsewhere and who later relocate into the streets,street children don’t know of any home apart from the streets.They are born,raised and live in the streets.Their families consist of fellow street children and sometimes,their parents.
- Some children run away from their homes.Some children run away from their parents for a variety of reasons which include the following.
- Some may have experienced traumatic conditions in their homes.They are treated harshly and unfairly by their parents and other family members. b.Family disintegration.Family disintegration leads to a weaker family unit.In such a family,parents may be irresponsible and not caring.This makes children to prefer living in the streets.
- Glamour of big cities. Some children are attracted to the glamour of big cities.They think that life in the city is great only for them to end up suffering.They believe that life in the city is a bed of roses only for them to go through untold pain,misery and suffering.
- Irresponsible society. Sometimes,you find that children are orphans and are left in the hands of the society.Instead of the members of the society to take care of these children,they mistreat them.These children then opt to live in the streets.
They are thrust into a bleak, harsh and depraved environment often fraught with constant and sustained danger in various forms such as:
- Violence amongst themselves and towards others
- Drug taking and trafficking
- Sexual exploitation accompanied by a high risk of contracting STIs and HIV/AIDS
- Loneliness and fear
- Physical and emotional abuse and neglect
- Exposure to the elements
- Early, unplanned and uncontrolled pregnancy and parenthood
- Poor hygienic and sanitation conditions
Children Rights in Kenya
KENYAN LAWS PROVIDING FOR THE CHILD RIGHTS AND CHILD PROTECTION
The Constitution of Kenya
This is the Supreme law of Kenya; any law that is inconsistent with Constitution is null and void.
Chapter Five (5) of the Constitution contains the Bill of Rights, which offers protection for the safeguards of the individual rights and freedoms for every Kenyan. These include the right to association, movement, secure protection of the law, religion and conscience, and the right to life.
The Constitution however does not have the rights of children expressly spelt out or guaranteed.
The Penal Code (Cap.63 Laws of Kenya)
The Penal Code defines the Penal system in Kenya. It outlines criminal offenses and prescribes penalties to them.
The Penal Code protects children, in that acts and omissions, which amount to child abuse, are classified as punishable offences.
Sexual abuse: Offences outlined in the Penal Code- Rape, Defilement, indecent assault, incest (both by males and females) and unnatural offences.
Physical Abuse: Offences include: common assault, assault occasioning actual bodily harm and grievous bodily harm.
Other offences that protect the lives of children include concealment of birth, killing of the unborn, procuration of an abortion etc.
Age of Criminal Responsibility
The Penal Code also sets an age below which a child cannot be held to be criminally responsible even when they have committed a crime. This is known as the age of criminal responsibility.
The age of criminal responsibility in Kenya is eight (8) years. This means that if a child of less than eight years performs an act or omission, which by law is defined as a crime like stealing or killing a person, he or she cannot be held responsible for the crime.
Therefore, the child cannot be charged in a court of law for prosecution.
The Penal Code goes further to say that if the child is between the ages of eight (8) and twelve (12) years of age, and commits a criminal offence, then before prosecution, the court must establish whether the child understood the consequences of his/her actions. If not, then the child will not be prosecuted, but if it comes out that the child understood, then he/she will be prosecuted.
Further, the same law tells us that male children under the age of twelve (12) years are incapable of committing an offence associated with carnal knowledge or sexual intercourse.
Therefore, criminal action cannot be taken against say an eleven-year-old boy who has committed the offence of rape or defilement, because the law sees him as incapable of committing such an offence.
The Evidence Act (Cap 80, Laws of Kenya).
Section 124 of the Evidence Act calls for the corroboration of the evidence of children of tender years.
The above section was however amended by the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 2003 which adds the following proviso:
“provided that where a criminal case involving a sexual offense the only evidence is that of a child of tender years who is the alleged victim of the offence, the court shall receive the evidence of the child and proceed to convict the accused person if, for reasons to be recorded in the proceedings, the court is satisfied that the child is telling the truth.”
This means that in cases of child sexual abuse, where the child is the victim, corroboration of the child’s evidence is not a must.
Corroboration means independent evidence, which implicates the person, accused of a crime by
connecting him with it. This means that evidence that confirms that the person charged committed the offence.
Children of tender years are children under the age of ten years as is defined in the Children’sct.
Matrimonial Causes Act (Cap 152, Laws of Kenya)
This Act consolidates all the laws relating to matrimonial cases. The Act is important as it protects children in case of the dissolution of a marriage by providing for maintenance and custody of children.
Only children who are born within lawful wedlock are provided for in this Act.
Subordinate Courts (Separation and Maintenance) Act
The Act provides for children in case of judicial separation of their parents.
A married woman can apply for maintenance and custody orders in a case where the husband has willfully neglected the children.
Employment Act (Cap 226, Laws of Kenya)
This Act outlines the laws governing employment and protecting employees in Kenya.
The Act protects all children under the age of 16 years from employment in industrial undertaking except for internship or training.
Further, the Act outlines Children’s Employment Rules, which provide for Prrtection of children at work.
The Children Act (Cap. 586, Laws of Kenya)
This is an Act of Parliament that provides for the rights of children and seeks to enhance the welfare of children in Kenya.
The Children’s Act (CA) was enacted for the following main reasons:
- To put together the provisions of the various laws that affected children;
- To give effect the provisions of the CRC and the African charter on the rights and welfare of the child.
The Act has XIII main parts with various provisions:
PART I: INTERPRETATION.
This part gives the legal definition of various terms, phrases and sections in the CA.
PART II: SAFEGUARDS FOR THE RIGHTS AND WELFARE OF CHILDREN
The CA provides for the rights of all children as are provided for in the CRC and the African Charter. They are as follows:
Inherent right to life. The Government and the family have the responsibility of ensuring the survival and development of every child.
Right to parental care-Every child has the right to live with and be cared for by his/her parents.
Right to Education- Every child is entitled to free and compulsory primary education the provision of which shall be the responsibility of the Government and the parents.
Right to religious education- Every child has a right to religious education. Parents have the responsibility of providing children with appropriate guidance in religious education.
Right to health care. - Every child has a right to health and medical care of which parents and the Government shall have the responsibility of providing for.
Protection from child labour and armed conflict. - Every child shall be protected from economic exploitation and any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
Children should also not be recruited in armed conflict or take part in hostilities. Where armed conflict occurs, respect for and protection and care of children shall be maintained in accordance with the law.
Right to Name and Nationality. – Every child has a right to a name and nationality. Where a child is deprived of his identity, the Government shall provide appropriate assistance and protection with a view to establishing his or her identity.
Right of Children with disabilities to be treated with dignity. Every child with a disability has a right to be treated with dignity, and to be given appropriate medical treatment, special care and education.
Protection from child abuse. - Every child is entitled to protection from physical, psychological, sexual, neglect and any other form of exploitation including sale, trafficking or abduction by any person.
Protection form harmful cultural rites. - No child should be subjected to female circumcision, early marriage or other cultural rites, customs or traditional practices that are likely to negatively affect the child’s life, health, social welfare, dignity or physical or psychological development.
Protection from the sexual exploitation. - All children shall be protected from sexual exploitation, prostitution, inducement or coercion to engage in any sexual activity and exposure to pornographic materials.
Protection from drugs. – Every child shall be protected from the use of all drugs and from being used in their production, trafficking or distribution.
Leisure and recreation. - A child has the right to leisure, play and to participate in cultural and artistic activities.
Torture and deprivation of liberty. – No child shall be subjected to torture, cruel treatment or punishment, unlawful arrest or deprivation of liberty.
Right to privacy. - Every child has a right to privacy subject to parental guidance.
These rights are to be practiced with the following principles:
“Best interests Principle”
In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of children shall be a primary consideration.
No child shall be subjected to discrimination on the ground of origin, sex, religion, creed, custom, language, opinion, conscience, colour, birth, social, political, economic or other status, race, disability, tribe residence or local connection.
“The Child’s Opinion”
When working with children, it is always important to allow the child to air their views or opinions on an issue and also to ensure that the views or opinions are respected and given due weight.
“Maximum Survival and Development”
All actions affecting children should be directed in ensuring that their lives are protected and that they develop in the best possible way.
PART III: PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITY
Parental responsibility refers to the duties, rights, powers responsibilities and authority, which by law a parent of a child has over the child and the child’s property in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.
The duties include;
Maintenance of the child and provision of adequate diet, shelter, clothing, medical care, and education and guidance.
PART IV: ADMINISTRATION OF CHILDREN’S SERVICES.
National council for the Administration of Children Services
The Children Act establishes the National Council for the Administration of children’s Services, which shall have the following functions:
Exercise general supervision and control over planning, coordination of child rights and welfare activities;
To advise the Government on all aspects of child rights and welfare of children
The Act also stipulates the role and responsibilities of the Director of Children’s Services and that of the Local Authorities in safeguarding and promoting the rights and welfare of children within its area of operation
PART V: CHILDREN’S INSTITUTIONS.
This part gives provisions, guidelines on and role of institutions that may be established; two by the Government and one by persons other than the Government.
1. Rehabilitation Schools
2. Children’s Remand Home
3. Charitable Children’s Institutions
PART VI: CHILDREN’S COURT.
Children’s Courts are established to hear the following matters:
These are cases concerning parental responsibility, Custody and maintenance, guardianship, children in need of care and protection and granting judicial orders for the protection of children.
The Court also hears cases of children who are in conflict with the law or child offenders except where a child is charged with murder or is jointly charged with an adult(s).
The Court also hears cases against people who have been cruel or neglectful of their children and any other offences outlined in the Act.
Children’s Courts are presided over by Children’s Magistrates appointed by the Chief Justice.
PART VIII: CUSTODY AND MAINTENANCE
This refers to the parental duties and responsibilities as relates to the actual possession of a child often given by a Court.
Who can be Given Custody?
- A parent of a child;
- A guardian;
Any other person who applies for custody of the child but has had actual custody for three months before making the application and has the permission of the parent or guardian.
What factors are to be considered before making a custody order?
The wishes of the child;
The wishes of the parents, guardians, foster parents or any other persons who have had custody of the child for the past three years;
- Cultural and religious background of the child;
- Best interests of the child.
Maintenance refers to the supply of the necessaries of life for a child. For children this includes adequate diet, shelter, health and medical services and education.
Who has the duty to maintain a child?
- Parents of a child who were married to each other at the time of a child’s birth;
- Parents of a child who were not married to each other at the time of a child’s birth but have subsequently gotten married;
- If the parents are not married but the father has acquired parental responsibility;
- Joint custodians of a child;
- Joint Guardians of a child.
Any parent, guardian, custodian of a child may apply to the children’s court for maintenance orders if they have an issue to do with maintenance.
The court may order a parent to provide for a child’s upkeep but will take into consideration the financial means of those involved.
PART IX: GUARDIANSHIP
Who is a Guardian?
A guardian is a person appointed to take care of a child alone or the child and his property after the death of a parent.
PART X: JUDICIAL ORDERS FOR THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN
These are orders that the Court can grant for the protection of children and to ensure that their welfare is enhanced.
PART XI: CHILDREN IN NEED OF CARE AND PROTECTION
These are children who include;
- Orphaned or have been abandoned or are destitute;
- Parents have been imprisoned;
- Homeless or are beggars;
- Prevented from receiving an education;
- A female child subjected to FGM or early marriage or children exposed to harmful cultural practices;
- A child exposed to domestic violence;
- Who is pregnant;
1. Who is terminally ill or whose parents are terminally ill or who has a disability;
2. Who have been sexually abused;
3. Who are exposed to child labour, et al.
PART XII: FOSTER CARE PLACEMENT
Foster care placement means the placement of a child with a person who is not the child’s parent, relative or guardian and who is willing to undertake the care and maintenance of that child.
A child can be taken to a foster parent through placement by the Director of Children’s Services and the manager of a charitable institution or Rehabilitation School where the child has been placed through a care order.
Who May Foster Parent?
- A married couple;
- A single woman aged above 25 years (but she may not foster a male child)
- A single man aged above 25 years (but he may not foster a female child)
PART XIII: ADOPTION
Adoption vests parental rights and duties relating to a child if the adopter or the person whom the adoption order has been granted.
The Act establishes an Adoption Committee to oversee adoption issues in the country.
PART XIV: CHILD OFFENDERS.
The Act outlines ways of dealing with children who are in conflict with the law
Children Justice in Kenya
Experts believe that juvenile justice in Kenya is still one of the main problems the government needs to address, as ill-treatment in prison is in violation of child and youth rights.
Verbal and physical abuse from the community and the police are some of the most common problems the street children face every day.
The police make arbitrary arrests of children for various reasons: loitering, carrying illegal weapons, refusing to give in to sexual demands, or being rude to police officers.
Once in police custody, the harassment of these children continues and sometimes worsens. Abuse ranges from being insulted, beaten, kicked, and detained, to sexual abuse and rape.
“The detention centre is often so crowded that there is no separate cell for adults and children. The food they give is not enough or dirty. And there is only one bucket as a toilet for everybody,” said Ndegwa.
Omondy was arrested by the police for the possession of a pen knife.
“At the police station I was beaten so many times. I was forced to make a false statement for a crime I didn’t do. There was no mattress or blanket to sleep on. I slept on the cold floor in my t-shirt and my shorts only. We were not allowed to go to the toilet, there was only one bucket for everybody if we need to go to toilet,” he told IRIN.
“I’m scared of the police because I’ve heard many children have gone through very bad experiences while they were in detention,” he added.
Children are held in detention in remand homes or detention centres before receiving a trial. If they are subsequently found guilty they are sent to rehabilitation schools, for children who are under 15, or to borstal or prison if they are above 15-years-old.
“Conditions at the remand homes or at the approved schools are sometimes as bad as in police cells. But at the prison or borstal the situation is far worse. In some cases, children are put together in the adult prison due to lack of space, or because they were assumed to be adults by the judge,” said Ndegwa.
“There are reports of children being handcuffed to beds, stripped naked and beaten. Sometimes children are not allowed to eat, or their food is withheld as a form of punishment. They are often subject to sex abuse or sodomy by the guards or older youth,” she added.
Children Participation in Kenya
Structures have been created to empower children in their families, schools, communities and nationally. This is done through ChiIdren’s Voices, a national programme that allows children to air their views on matters that affect them.
The department, on recommendations from the UN Convention on Rights of Children, is working on a document to be used in educating opinion leaders and other stakeholders on the need to listen to children.
Children Volunteer Services
Volunteer officers are recruted to help provide services to children. The Kenya Volunteers Children’s
Services Officer system was introduced under the Kenya-]apan collaboration for improvement of juvenile justice. The concept was first introduced in Trans Nzoia and Kisumu districts as well as Dagoretti Division in Nairobi before it rolled out countrywide.
The volunteers are recruited by the Director of Children’s Services on the recommendation of local advisory
councils. They complement the work of children’s officers.
Volunteer officers ensure that the rights of children are protected, guide children in need ofcare and protection and rehabilitate and reintegrate child offenders into the community. They also promote collaboration with partners and stakeholders on children’s issues in the provision of services and act as secretaries to the locational area advisory council. Volunteer are dismissed if they contravene the code ofconduct or commit criminal offences.
National Council for ChiIdren’s Services in Kenya
National Council for ChiIdren’s Services is charged with securing the well being of children and oversees and policy direction on children’s affairs It approves registration of charitable children’s institutions, mobilises resources for children’s activities and formulates policies and guidelines for the benefit ofthe child.
Way forward for Children in Kenya
The department plans to: Speed up the implementation of children’s rights
- Train people to deal with data collection and entry
- Strengthen donor-coordination, monitoring and evaluation, especially of children’s institutions.
- Train officers, including volunteers, area advisory councils and officials in Government institutions dealing with children
- Seek to stop new media that offer pornographic material from negatively influencing children.
Children Organizations in Kenya
Kenya Alliance for Advancement of Children (KAACR)
PO Box 73637
Tel: +254 2 445 0256/7
Fax: +254 2 445 0092
AMURT – Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team
AMURT (Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team) is one of the few private international voluntary organizations founded in India. Since its inception in 1965 its original objective was to help meet the needs of the affected population after disasters that regularly hit the Indian sub-continent. Over the years AMURT has established teams in thirty-four countries, to create a network that can meet disaster and development needs almost anywhere in the world. In 1985 we broadened our goals to include long-term development. We feel that we can play a useful role in helping vulnerable communities break the cycle of poverty and gain greater control over their lives. For us, development is human exchange: people sharing wisdom, knowledge and experience to build a better world.
Ms. 2 & 3, Adj. Wood Avenue Apartments,
Wood Avenue, Kilimani
Nairobi P.O BOX 10101 – 00100 Kenya
The CRADLE-The Children Foundation
Ms. 2 & 3, Adj. Wood Avenue Apartments,
Wood Avenue, Kilimani
P.O. Box 10101-00100
Tel. +254 2 3874575
Cellphone: +254 722 201805 / +254 734 798199
Fax: +254 2 2710156
The CRADLE maintains satellite offices outside Nairobi as follows:
The CRADLE Satellite Office – Kisumu
Sifa House- Kibuye, 2nd Floor
P.O. Box 345-40100, Kisumu
Phone: +254 725 34 85 47
Email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
The CRADLE Satellite Office – Suba
Off Homabay – Mbita Main Road
Near Victoria Filling Station
Contact: Madam Ondari, paralegal or Kisumu officer
Phone: 0725 30 83 69
Email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
The CRADLE Child Help Desk – Malindi
Malindi Child Protection Centre
Adj: Malindi Juvenile Remand Home/opposite Modern Coast Bus
Contact: Prudence Mutiso, Legal Officer
Phone: 0202 13 30 98
The CRADLE Child Help Desk – Mombasa
4th Floor NSSF Building
Contact: Salem Lorot, Legal Officer
Phone: 0202 13 31 02
The CRADLE Child Help Desk – Eldoret
Eldoret Law Courts
Contact: Johna K. Kirwa, Legal Officer
Phone: 0203 50 03 43
The CRADLE Child Help Desk – Kwale/Msambweni
Contact: Harun Omariba, Legal Officer
The CRADLE Child Help Desk – Lodwar/Turkana
Contact: Esther Kimani, Legal Officer
Contact: Lovender Otiende, Counselor
ICRI International Headquarters
125 University Avenue
2nd Floor, Southwest Suite
Berkeley, CA 94710
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Phone: (510) 644-1000
Fax: (510) 644-1115
Ken Jaffe, President and Executive Director email@example.com
Ellie Mashhour, Chief Operations Officer firstname.lastname@example.org
Janet Massite, Finance Manager email@example.com
Ambri Pukhraj, Program and Operations Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
ICRI Africa (Kenya)
P. O. Box 27075-00100
Leonard Chuomo Falex, Program Manager email@example.com
Kenya Children of Hope
House No. 149 Golf Course , Mosiro Court, Mosiro Road,
Phone: +254 72590011
Child Aid Organization Kenya
Child Aid Organization Kenya is registered as not for profit, non governmental organization in Kenya since 2008. It operates on a national level in the area of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention (CSA), Human Rights Training and Advocacy work. The purpose of the organization is to prevent/stop the sexual abuse of children in its entire forms: reduce societal tolerance of the sexual exploitation of children; prevent entry of children into exploitation in all its forms; effectively advocate for the creation of strong, enforceable legislative environments to protect children from sexual exploitation; and ensure that children who are sexually exploited have access to a range of services that enhances their safety and well – being and supports exit from sexual exploitation.
P.O. Box 483 Nairobi 00518 Kenya
ANPPCAN Kenya Chapter is the Kenyan National chapter of the African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect, a pan-African child rights organization with chapters in seventeen African countries. It is a charitable, not for profit organization and was registered as a Non-Governmental Organization in 1995. Like the other ANPPCAN chapters, ANPPCAN Kenya operates as a national resource centre on child abuse and neglect and children’s rights. We provide information and technical expertise on child protection and child rights issues, carry out research on emerging children’s issues and lobby governments, donors, other NGOs and communities on behalf of children.
ANPPCAN Kenya Chapter,
Chemusian Apartments, No B3,
Argwings Kodhek Road, Hurlingham,
P.O. Box 46516, 00100-GPO, Nairobi , Kenya
Plan International Inc.
Kenya Country Office
Oloitokitok Road, Lavington
Methodist Ministries Centre, Block C, Ground Floor
P.O. Box 25196, Lavington 00603
Office Tel:+254(0) 20 2761000 (Main line), +254(0) 20 2447422 / 33 (Wireless), +254(0) 722 201 293 / 734 600 774 (Mobile)