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Public Procurement in Kenya


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The Public Procurement in Kenya has evolved from a crude system with no regulations to an orderly legally regulated procurement system. The Government’s Procurement system was originally contained in the Supplies Manual of 1978, which was supplemented by circulars that were issued from time to time by the Treasury. The Director of Government Supply Services was responsible for ensuring the proper observance of the provisions of the Manual. The Manual created various tender boards for adjudication of tenders and their awards.

A review of the country’s public procurement systems was undertaken in 1999 and established that:

i) There was no uniform procurement system for the public sector as a whole
ii) It did not have sanctions or penalties against persons who breached the regulations in the Supplies Manual, other than internal disciplinary action. Consequently application of the rules was not strict and many of the norms were not followed
iii) The Supplies Manual did not cover procurement of works
iv) The dispute settlement mechanisms relating to the award procedures as set out in the Manual were weak and unreliable for ensuring fairness and transparency
v) Records of procurement transactions in many cases were found to be inaccurate or incomplete or absent, which led to suspicions of dishonest dealings at the tender boards.

(i) The systems had other institutional weaknesses that not only undermined its capacity for carrying out their mandates effectively but also led to a public perception that the public sector was not getting maximum value for money spent on procurement.
In view of the above shortcomings it was found necessary to have a law to govern the procurement system in the public sector and to establish the necessary institutions to ensure that all procurement entities observe the provisions of the law for the purpose of attaining the objectives of an open tender system in the sector. Consequently the establishment of the Exchequer and Audit (Public Procurement) Regulations 2001 which created the Public Procurement Directorate (PPD) and the Public Procurement Complaints, Review and Appeals Board (PPCRAB).

The PPD and PPCRAB, though largely independent in carrying out their activities, had been operating as departments in the Ministry of Finance on which they relied for staff, facilities and funding. Since these institutional arrangements have a potential for undermining the impartiality of these bodies in the long run it was found necessary to create an oversight body whose existence was based on a law. The Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005 was thus enacted and it become operational on 1st January, 2007 with the gazettement of the Public Procurement and Disposal Regulations, 2006.

The Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005 created the Public Procurement Oversight Authority (PPOA), the Public Procurement Advisory Board (PPAB) and the continuance of the Public Procurement Complaints, Review and Appeals Board as the Public Procurement Administrative Review Board (PPARB). The PPAB and PPARB are autonomous bodies.

The PPOA is mandated with the responsibility of:
1. Ensuring that procurement procedures established under the Act are complied with;
2. Monitoring the procurement system and reporting on its overall functioning
3. Initiating public procurement policy
4. Assisting in the implementation and operation of the public procurement system by:

  • preparing and distributing manuals and standard tender documents,
  • providing advice and assistance to procuring entities, and
  • develop, promote and support training and professional development of staff involved in procurement


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