Pig Farming in Kenya
Pig farming in Kenya is considered to be one of the most lucrative business ventures in Kenya. Pig farmers in Kenya have reaped quite attractive profits from pig farming. Pigs can be raised both in small or large scale commercial venture for providing food and nutrition to the family and for the country or for commercial purposes.
Pig Farming in Kenya – Factors to Consider
When setting up commercial pig farming in Kenya, the following factors should be put into consideration:-
Selection of a Suitable Farm Land
Selecting a suitable land is very important for starting pig farming in Kenya. A suitable land with the availability of all types of necessary facilities ensures proper growth, good health, proper marketing and maximum profit from pig farming business. Determine the area and size of farmland according to the number of pigs on your farm. While selecting lands for pig farming in Kenya, consider the followings:-
- Select a calm and quiet place far from the residential areas.
- Ensure sufficient supply of freshwater in the farm area. A water source like a lake, pond, river. will be effective.
- The selected area will be very near to the market. So that you can easily sell your products and buy necessary things from the market.
- Consider the availability of veterinary service near your farmland.
- The good transportation system.
- Low-cost feeding elements help to reduce food costs. While selecting land consider this.
- Select land in village areas. Because in village areas, you can easily find cheap labor, feeding elements and lands.
Selection of suitable Breeds
- A pair of bright eyes.
- Glossy coat.
- Alert and responsive to it’s surrounding environment.
- Good temperament.
- Good appeal to food.
- Easy and normal movement.
- Free from lameness or any other unnatural signs.
- Avoid purchasing aggressive pig.
- While purchasing, ask the producer about their health information, production history, and other records.
Pigs are very strong and they need sturdy living quarters. Air circulation and shade are vital. Pigs are very sensitive to temperature. Generally, adult pigs are very sensitive to hot temperature and the piglets are affected adversely by cold temperature. So, the controlled temperature can help to maximize growth and production. Keeping the piglets with their mother in a separate house is a good idea. Separate the feeding and bedding place and try to keep the house neat and clean always.
Feeding is the most important part of pig farming in Kenya. Because good and nutritious food always ensures good production. Pigs can eat and consume both meat and grains. You can feed your pigs almost everything that includes roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste, stalk from beverage companies. Famers can also feed your pigs’ cooked table scraps, vegetables. Corn is the main food of pigs. But, having a diet with protein from soybeans or cooked meat will be effective for pigs. Vitamins and other supplements also help to grow faster. Piglets need higher protein contained food than adult pigs.
Along with sufficient nutritious food, always serve them a sufficient amount of fresh and clean water according to their daily demands. Sufficient fresh water helps to keep the pig healthy and this directly impacts the profit from pig farming in Kenya.
Pig breeding is very easy. Pure breeding, cross-breeding, outbreeding and inbreeding are the common types of pig breeding models. Most of the pig breeds have a less gestation period of not more than 115 days. Sow produce piglets twice a year and about 10 piglets each time.
Pig Farming in Kenya – Types of Pig Breeds for Meat Production in Kenya.
There are different types of a pig reared in Kenya according to the gestation period and amount of meat production. Here are some of the most famous pig breeds in Kenya for meat production.
The golden brown color and hard skin coat make the breed more distinctive from other pig breeds. They have small ears that are slightly drooping. They are among the least aggressive pig breeds. The pig has high maternal instincts and has been traditionally used as terminal sires. They are also known for a faster growth rate and a long body with broad shoulders. The pig breed is suitable for the production of both light pork and massive pork meat for commercial purposes. You need little capital to start the investment in your farm.
Landrace Pig Breed
The pig-size ranges from medium to large, and they have physical features that are unique from other breeds of pigs across the world. They tend to have white coloration with more beautiful hair, long snout, and massive drooping ears. The swine have large bodies that lack excess fats and wrinkles but deep smooth sides. The breed is not accessible due to its maternal instincts and high fertility. They have a reputation for producing quite a good number of piglets, and they are suitable for pork production and bacon.
Hampshire Pig Breed
These are typically the oldest pig breed in the United States. The pig has erected ears and black body color. They are medium size with a broad white band around the middle and also the front legs. They have an excellent build body with strong legs making it accessible for pork meat production. The swine has faster growth but tends to have a slow maturity rate when compared to other swine breeds.
Combrough Pig Breed
The swine breed is infamous for lean meat and conformation. It is an alternative source of crossbreeding in case you are practicing an intensive pig rearing system. You will be required to one boar for two to three sows from other breeds. They have the reputation of improving the genetic qualities of other breeds in terms of weight gain and growth rate. They are docile in temperament and exceptional maternal instincts.
Pig Farming in Kenya – Types of Pig Farming System in Kenya
Pig rearing systems in Kenya are dependent on the amount of capital the farmer has at the disposal. The following are some of the standard methods practiced by many pig breeders in Kenya.
Free-Range Pigs Farming
This involves keeping pigs on a large farm where the primary feeds are the grass and Lucerne. Pigs raised on free-range tend to have tasty pork that has natural flavor. You can supply the pigs with other supplements to ensure they get the required nutrients for faster growth and development. The system is cost-efficient for those breeders with a low budget.
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Semi-Intensive Pig Keeping
The farming system is suitable for those medium breeders. Here the pigs are enclosed in a semi-permanent structure, and they are provided continuously with feeds. The farmer can get feeds from the farm and also from the market.
Famers are also required to provide them with other supplements for faster growth and weight gain. The rearing system is time-consuming, but the breeder has a direct connection with the market. The breeding system has huge returns when compared to other rearing systems.
Intensive Pig Rearing
The system involves raising pigs in a close area in the form of a housing system. The method is suitable for those breeders with direct market connections or is interested in meat production. The main aim of this system is to raise pigs for slaughter to cut off the cost of feeding.
The pigs grow faster due to an adequate supply of food and other supplements. However, the system requires a high amount of investments since the cost of supplement tend to be high. It is not a suitable pig rearing system for farmers with a low budget.
Pig Farming in Kenya – Marketing
There is a huge demand for pig products in the market. Pig products such as pork, bacon, sausages. are very popular throughout the whole of Kenya. So, you don’t need to worry about marketing your products if you want to start pig farming in Kenya. Sell your pigs in your nearest local market when they gain marketing weights. Commercial pig farming in Kenya is a very popular and profitable business and it is one of the worthwhile activities to engage in. The demand is very high and the market is growing rapidly. But the supply is still limited. So, there is a great opportunity for starting commercial pig farming in Kenya.
Pig Farming in Kenya – Slaughter Houses
Farmer’s Choice Limited
Farmer’s Choice is the largest abattoir in Kenya located on the outskirts of Nairobi. This private facility combines slaughtering and processing. They mainly supply affiliate hotels with pork products and are also involved in exports. The factory slaughters about 400 pigs and processes 350 pig carcasses per day into products such as ham, bacon, sausages, and burgers.
Most of the pigs come from their farms and the rest are supplied by contract and other pig farmers. Farmers Choice sells its products to tourist hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, and other retail outlets in various destinations in Kenya and neighboring countries.
Ndumboini Farm slaughterhouse
This abattoir is located in Kikuyu District of Kiambu County and receives pigs from all over the country. They do not carry out any processing of pork. It has a capacity of slaughtering 40 to 50 pigs per day, most of which come from Kiambu and surrounding areas, with a significant number coming from Nyanza. This abattoir is the main supplier of pork to most of the butcheries in Nairobi city center, as well as its estates and outskirts. Some meat is transported to butcheries in Thika and Kitengela.
This facility is situated on the northern outskirts of Nairobi. It slaughters between six and ten pigs a day mainly from Nairobi and Kiambu. Outlets for the carcasses include Nairobi City Market butcheries, several hotels, popular entertainment places, and supermarkets.
Kabati abattoir is located in Muranga South District. Cattle, sheep, and goats are slaughtered in one section while pigs are slaughtered in the other. The two operations are separate. The abattoir kills between 18 and 25 pigs per day, limited only by the shortage of pigs for slaughter. Most of the pigs are supplied by small-scale farmers in the district, with a few from Thika, Machakos, Nyeri, Nyahururu and Kirinyaga and Kitale. Traders sometimes slaughter underweight pigs to meet demand. The main market for the carcasses is Thika Town which is probably a leading town in Kenya in pork consumption and has many pork butcheries and eateries.
Large and medium pig commercial enterprises around Nairobi (Ngong and Kiserian) and Nakuru have their own slaughter slabs where they slaughter their own pigs and sometimes those of the neighboring small-scale farmers.
Some of these enterprises own butcheries in Nairobi and Nakuru where the pork is sold. Pig-raising areas in major cities, towns and rural districts generally have various types of slaughter slabs and outlets in local butcheries and eateries.
Pig Farming in Kenya – Benefits of Pig Rearing
According to the condition of Kenya, pig farming has many advantages. The main benefits of pig farming in Kenya include:-
- Pigs grow faster than other livestock animals and the reproduction system takes less time.
- They grow faster by converting more nutrients/energy into protein.
- You can feed your pigs almost everything including roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste, etc. for reducing feeding cost.
- You can fulfill your daily family nutrition demands by setting up small scale pig farming in Kenya.
- You can start raising pigs with very little investment. As pigs grow very fast, so you can turn your farm into a commercial-stage within a very short time.
- Sow give birth of piglets twice a year and each time they produce about 10 piglets. And the gestation period is also very less (not more than 115 days).
- Pig farming in Kenya has a good return on investment (ROI) ratio.
- The weather and geographical location of Kenya are suitable for starting pig farming business.
- Pig meat has a huge demand in the market of Kenya.
- Great source of employment for unemployed people. Even the unemployed educated people can also start commercial pig farming business in Kenya.
- You can also start raising pigs along with your current profession.
Frequently Asked Questions About Pig Farming in Kenya (FAQs)
Is pig farming in Kenya profitable?
Famers who have started pig farming in Kenya are now producing high-quality meat and making good profits. Pigs can be raised in both small or large scale commercial venture for providing food and nutrition to the family and total country or just for making high profit.
How much does a pig eat in 6 months?
It will take roughly 5 to 6 months to raise a pig from birth to a finished weight of around 250 pounds. -A pig will eat an average of 6 to 8 pounds of feed per day. Where can the farmer get Deworming medicines and vaccination? Pigs Deworming medicines can be obtained from the veterinary dispensary at the block office and also from veterinary clinics. The vaccination medicines are available only with the veterinary experts at the dispensaries.
How many times a year can a pig get pregnant?
For pigs, Pregnancy lasts for 3 months 3 weeks and 3 days. A well-fed sow will produce at least 10 piglets (litter) from each pregnancy and may have 2 litters each year.
How many months does it take a pig to mature?
It also takes just 6 to 8 months for a pig to mature and reach market weight.